ACS Chemical Information Division (CINF)
Spring, 1998 ACS National Meeting
A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN PATENT RESOURCES ON THE INTERNET AND ONLINE PATENT DATABASES
Nancy Lambert, Chevron Business Products and Services, Richmond, CA 94802
Internet-based patent information resources have grown considerably in the last few years. Some of them offer search and display capabilities not available through commercial online patent databases, while the indexed online databases still offer in-depth searching, particularly in chemical areas, that is still not available with Internet-based databases. This paper gives a state-of-the-art summary of Internet resources currently available and looks at capabilities unique to both Internet and online resources.
PATENTS ON THE WEB: THE IMPACT ON "TRADITIONAL" PATENT SEARCHING.
Mary A Thomson, Duracell Worldwide Technology Center, 37 A Street, Needham, MA 02194
The World Wide Web boasts several well designed and popular sources of US patent information, and limited access to international patent data is becoming available, too. This means a new level of exposure to patents for many end-users and a new resource for all patent searchers. The impact of these new resources on chemical patent searchers will be discussed, both as it affects the practice of experienced searchers and as it changes the perceptions and behavior of the end-users or customers of search services.
DEVELOPMENTS IN PATENT DOCUMENTATION DURING THE LAST DECADE.
Stephen R. Adams, Magister, Ltd., 62 Norton Road, Reading,Berkshire, RG1 3QJ, United Kingdom.
The professional patent searcher needs to understand the legal procedures underlying patent publications, in order to obtain maximum benefit from available information sources. The political upheavals in Europe since the fall of the Berlin Wall have resulted in substantial changes to national patent laws and procedures, in parallel with trends towards more regional filing methods. The response of the commercial database producers to new country coverage will be discussed, together with aspects of new document types such as supplementary protection certificates for pharmaceuticals and the increasing popularity of utility model patents.
SOLVING THE MAZE: CLIENT PATENT INFORMATION NEEDS AND NEW TECHNOLOGY.
Stefano Caporusso, Gary McNamee, Bldg. B-1210, The Dow Chemical Company, 2301 Brazosport Blvd., Freeport, TX 77541-3203.
The presentation describes an approach towards meeting patent information needs within a corporation in a dynamic environment. Recent information technology developments are changing the way information professionals interact with their clients within a corporation. The well-known, established path of looking for and acquiring patent information has changed shape from a straight line into a maze for both parties. Numerous sources, access points, end-user products and internet sites overlap and complement each other, but also tend to overwhelm the end-user and challenge the information professional. The different patent information needs of clients can better be satisfied by segmenting the client types and focusing on the benefits that ensure that the right kind and level of information is delivered to the right client.
RELEVANCE RANKING IN PATENT DATABASES: IS IT RELEVANT?
Edlyn S. Simmons, Hoechst Marion Roussel, Inc., Cincinnati, OH 45215-6300
Patent databases grew up with the traditional online search services, where Boolean logic and proximity operators are used to produce a set of answers in reverse chronological order, some of them relevant, some false drop. Newer search engines are based upon more complex algorithms that automatically combine traditional operators with occurrence counts to generate sets of answers ranked according to their relevance. The underlying assumptions of relevance ranking may not be valid for patents, however. Because patents use generic language in preference to specific terms and rely upon drawings and chemical structure diagrams in preference to verbal descriptions, algorithms that rank answers on the basis of word frequency and proximity may not identify the most relevant patents. The wide availability of US patent databases searchable with various search engines facilitates comparison of the capabilities of relevance ranking algorithms.
TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS FOR CROSSFILE SEARCHING WITH QPAT-US, QUESTEL- ORBIT'S INTERNET FULL-TEXT US PATENT DATABASE.
Elvin L. Hoel, Information Research and Analysis Group, Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Linden, NJ 07036
QPAT-US, Questel-Orbit's database of U. S. Patents (1974-present) accessible via the Internet, is a powerful and cost-effective tool for full-text searching. In our searching group, it has also largely replaced CD-ROMs as the preferred means of browsing U. S. Patents. However, the resource provides poor help in crossfile searching efforts. Tools and techniques have been developed using Microsoft Word and WordBasic Macros, to ease export of search results from QPAT-US to other online databases (e. g., Derwent's World Patent Index), and to ease import of US patent numbers from other online databases to permit browsing the full-text of the patent. Examples of use and source code for these tools will be provided.
NEW ERA IN PATENT COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE
Cynthia H. O'Donohue, Allergan, Inc., 2525 Dupont Drive, Irvine, CA 92623-9534.
Traditionally, using patent information for business intelligence consisted of (1) searching for patents held by a corporation (2) determining the patent classifications (3) identifying the country(ies) in which the patent was issued (4) listing the inventor(s) or research team(s) for the patent. This information gathering was later aided by such tools as on-line ranking by market segment or ranking the company's patent classifications by number of patents granted. Statistical software allowed for a quantitative analysis of downloaded files as well. Further progress through electronic media should have ensured some advances in the ability to predict a corporation's strategy. However, neither the Internet nor specially developed software packages have significantly improved this process. A combination of available resources is described that can aid in the patent analysis process.
CREATING CUSTOMIZED SHARED DATABASES OF PATENT INFORMATION USING LOTUS NOTES.
Carol E. Herzberg, Information Services/3M 201-2C-12, 3M Center, St. Paul, MN 55144.
In support of efforts to reengineer the patent process at 3M, Information Services Patent Services has taken a leading role in evaluating and implementing new technology to assist its clients in making effective use of patent information. Increased demand from users for more customized and faster access to information has lead our group to reach beyond traditional information retrieval to enhance use of patent information products. As Lotus Notes became the corporate standard at 3M for information sharing, Information Services chose it for the platform for building patent databases. Using commercially available software and partnering with outside vendors, we have been able to create customized shared databases containing abstracts, full text and images of patents around the world for individual business units. The new databases will help ensure that our researchers are aware of the art and accelerate the patent filing process.
PATENT CITATION SEARCHING.
Stephen E. Reynolds, E. I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Wilmington, DE 19880-014
Patent citation searching ranges from a simple tool to gain insight into an inventor's influences to a form of bibliometrics. An overview of databases for performing citation searches as well as a discussion into the validity of mining data of questionable quality to draw conclusions about technology leaders will be presented.
FULL TEXT PATENT SEARCHING IN AN INCOMPLETE MULTILINGUAL DATABASE.
Stuart M. KAback, Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Linden, NJ 07036 USA.
The techniques required to search a full-text natural language database differ considerably from those used in searching a file with a controlled-language indexing system. Compound that with the problems that arise from the fact that the text may be in English, German, or French, plus the fact that a substantial number of documents-- the Euro-PCT applications--are NOT represented by the full patent text, and you have some of the challenges provided by the current full text files of European patents. This paper explores ways of maximizing the value obtained in searching the databases.
DEVELOPING AN EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGY COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE PROGRAM FROM SCRATCH.
Mathias M. Coburn, The Fusfeld Group, Inc. 136 Beverly Drive, Kennett Square, PA 19348.
A recent survey of companies with leading edge competitive intelligence systems incidated that imposing a "cookbook" competitive intelligence system on an organization is a sure way to fail. The survey showed that the program must be tailored to the needs and wants of the people who will be using the competitive intelligence service. To be truly effective, the program requires the visible and active support of the top executive, as well as the credibility of the person or people responsible for the program itself. A 10 step "how-to" process is described for selling the services of a competitive intelligence function, as well as ensuring that the needs and wants of those utilizing the services are met, through an interview process backed up with periodic audits.
PATENT INTELLIGENCE FROM LEGAL AND COMMERCIAL PERSPECTIVES.
Robert Cantrell, Derwent Information, Suite 250, 1725 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314.
Practitioners of patent intelligence gathering assess patents from two primary perspectives: legal issues of patentability and commercial issues that address technical capabilities of competitors and forecasts which technologies will likely become products. Legal issues have a strong influence on commercial issues, so the two cannot be looked at in isolation, but the techniques for obtaining the two differ. When assessing technology from a legal point of view, it is necessary to find all relevant prior art and who owns it. From the commercial point of view, the focus is on identifying those technologies most likely to become commercial products. Companies often give clues as to which patents they consider important. For example, a company may protect an invention widely very quickly with international patents when standard practice would be slower. From either standpoint, it is important for the patent analyst to note three divisions of technical competitors: those that use the same technology base to solve the same problem, those who use the same technology base to solve a different problem, and finally those who use a different technology base to solve the same problem. Each division has a different set of competitive dynamics.
CLASSIFICATION ANALYSIS: A VERY EFFECTIVE FIRST STEP IN TECHNOLOGY RELATED COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE.
Michael P. Bigwood, International Technology Information, PO Box 58, Oreland, PA 19075-0058 USA.
Classification analysis takes advantage of the fact that some suppliers of on-line databases covering published information do perform a content analysis of each document they add to their database. The result of that analysis is captured in the corresponding database record by assigning to it a series of codes that summarize the content of the document. This presentation will show how this encoded information can be statistically analyzed - in a very time and cost effective manner - to develop an understanding of corporate technology portfolios and technology strategies. Because of the relatively permanent format of the classification schemes developed by the database providers, this method also provides a useful framework for comparing competitors in a given technical field or market segment.
MAPPING KNOWLEDGE IN GLOBAL SCIENCE.
W. Gregg Wilcove, PhD., President, Wilcove Associates, Inc., 14 Medford Road, Morris Plains, NJ 07950.
Bibliometric co-citation analysis is one of a number of science mapping tools useful for gaining insight about the knowledge contained in global scientific research. These tools objectively measure the structural and performance characteristics of scientific knowledge, giving science managers new capabilities to understand (1) what is coming out, (2) when and (3) by whom. These technologies create new insights about opportunities/threats, and enable better decisions for R & D resource allocation issues and project selection and prioritization. We will present an overview of one such technology, its capabilities and limitations, and provide a brief example from our analysis of combinatorial chemistry.
IDENTIFYING UNKNOWNS: LIBRARY RESOURCES IN SUPPORT A LARGE UNDERGRADUATE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY LAB COURSE.
Grace Baysinger, Stella Ota, Stanford University, Swain Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Library, Organic Chemistry Building, Stanford, CA 94305-5080. 650-725-1039, 650-725-2274 (Fax), firstname.lastname@example.org
Every Fall Quarter, 350-400 sophomores take an organic chemistry class that includes laboratory work in identifying unknown compounds. Students also need to synthesize a derivative once they have identified their "parent" unknown compound. A number of electronic resources are searched using physical properties, chemical substructures/structures, and CAS Registry Numbers. Resources used include: Dictionary of Organic Compounds on CD-ROM, Properties of Organic Compounds on CD-ROM, Merck Index on CD-ROM, Beilstein Crossfire, AutoNom, and ACD's Interactive Web Laboratory (ILab). Thirty- five workstations in two libraries are available for students to use plus Beilstein Crossfire and ILab can be used from personal or dorm workstations. A key component in the success of the program is reference help provided by Teaching Assistant's in the libraries for 25 hours per week. This poster will summarize hardware and software used, provide sample search strategies, and list web pages developed in support of the course.
NEW MILEAGE OUT OF OLD TOOLS: The THERMODEX DATABASE AND MINING A LIBRARY COLLECTION FOR THERMODYNAMIC INFORMATION.
David Flaxbart, University of Texas at Austin, WEL 2.132 / Austin TX 78712. 512-495-4602, 512-471-8696 (Fax), email@example.com.
TIPS FOR CHEMICAL INFORMATION INSTRUCTORS: TECHNIQUES AND CONTENT.
Charles F. Huber, Davidson Library, University of Califonia-Santa Barbara,California 93106.
Chemical information instructors frequently need support in mastering teaching techniques, selecting instructional content and finding instructional resources. To help fill this need, the Education Division of the Division of Chemical Information of the ACS has presented a number of workshops on chemical information instruction. The content of this poster grew out of one of these workshops presented by the author and Grace Baysinger of Stanford University at the SLA National Meeting in June, 1997, and will be incorporated in another workshop by the author and F. Bartow Culp of Purdue University at the SLA meeting in June, 1998 in Indianapolis.
QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENTS OF TEACHING/RESEARCH EFFECTIVENESS FROM STN DATABASES AND DEPARTMENTAL STATISTICS: COMPARISONS BETWEEN CANADIAN UNIVERSITY CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENTS.
Brian M. Lynch, Department of Chemistry, St. Francis Xavier University, P. O. Box 5000, Antigonish, NS B2G 2W5, Canada. 902-867- 3992, 902-867-2414 (Fax), firstname.lastname@example.org.
MacLeans magazine publishes annual evaluations/rankings of Canadian universities. Groups of institutions [from "mega-university" to primarily undergraduate] are compared I have assessed research performances [RP] for each Chemistry Department of these universities, by publication count in the CAPlus file for the period 1966-1997. Data were put on a common basis, dividing publications by the total of faculty, PDFs, and postgraduates. Teaching productivity [TP] was assessed similarly, dividing totals of graduates by the totals of faculty members. Statistical information was from the Council of Canadian University Chemistry Chairs. Averages of RP and of TP were each assigned unit value: summed values form an index of teaching/ research effectiveness in Chemistry. Rankings show no discernible pattern - the "top" research universities are not at the top of the index.
SATURDAY SEMINARS: BRINGING MIDCAREER GRADUATE STUDENTS UP TO SPEED IN THE LIBRARY.
Katherine R. Porter, Duke University Chemistry Library, PO Box 90355, Durham NC 27708-0355. 919-660-1578, 919-681-8666 (Fax), email@example.com.
Keeping patrons up-to-date on chemical information is a major concern of chemistry librarians everywhere. Beginning students get tours, orientations, and introductory library classes. But what about those students who have been busy in the lab and have lost touch with everything except their assigned journal titles? Targeted presentations for research groups have proven to arrange and these students don't want to take any more classes. We decided to try brief workshops to be held Saturday mornings, each targeted at a new or revised resource that the students need to know about. CrossFire was the most requested topic for the kickoff and was offered for beginners with a second session on reaction searching. Students are encouraged to vote for their favorite topics for future sessions.
INEXPENSIVE 'STRUCTURE' SEARCHING - EXPANDING CHEMICAL NAMES IN THE Z-FILES.
Dana Roth, Caltech, Millikan Library 1-32, PASADENA CA 91125. 626-395-6423, 626- 792-7540 (Fax), firstname.lastname@example.org.
Users often ask for structure searches that can be done (very inexpensively) in the CAS Online ZREG file using CAS index name stems. Examples will be given of representative 'structure' searches performed in the ZREG file with the aid of both the Ring Systems Handbook and Appendix 4 (Chemical Substance Index Names) of the CA Index Guide.
CAS SERVES HIGHER EDUCATION.
Roger Schenck, Charlie Hatfield, Chemical Abstracts Service, 2540 Olentangy River Road, P.O. Box 3012, Columbus, OH, 43210. 614-447-3600 ext. 2402, 614-447-3813 (Fax), email@example.com
CAS is committed to serving the research and teaching needs of universities and colleges. This presentation will summarize key information tools that CAS provides for that community. SciFinder Scholar, CAS's special version of the SciFinder desktop research tool, will be discussed. Examples will be given illustrating SciFinder Scholar's exploration features, presentation features, and refinement capabilities. Also discussed will be Printed CA,CA on CD-ROM, STN Easy, and CA Student Edition.
SMALL GROUPS AND CHEMICAL INFORMATION INSTRUCTION.
Arleen N. Somerville,Carlson Library, University of Rochester NY 14627-0236. 716-275-4465, 716-473-1712 (Fax), asomerville@RCL.lib.rochester.edu.
Actively involving students in learning through small groups can be an effective teaching method. Several successful methods of group activity will be described to demonstrate how undergraduates, graduate students,and summer research participants have been introduced to the library's organization, computer system, and process for locating books and journals, as well as to major information resources.